Life Sciences and Agriculture

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

Content

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences | 2020 | vol. 23 | No 4 |

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Abstract

Bovine parvovirus (BPV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and bovine parainfluenza virus (BPIV) are common etiologies causing gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases in dairy herds. However, there are few reports on the synchronous detection of BPV, BCoV and BPIV. The present article aimed to develop a quick and accurate RT-PCR assay to synchronously detect BPV, BCoV and BPIV based on their specific probes. One pair universal primers, one pair specific primers and one specific probe was designed and synthesized. After the concentrations of primer and probe and annealing temperature were strictly optimized, the specificity, sensitivity and repeatability of the established triplex probe qRT-PCR were evaluated, respectively. The results showed the recombinant plasmids of pMD18-T-BPV, pMD18-T-BCoV and pMD18-T-BPIV were 554bp, 699bp and 704bp, respectively. The optimal annealing temperature was set at 45.0°C for triplex qRT-PCR. The triplex probe qRT-PCR can only synchronously detect BPV, BCoV and BPIV. Detection sensitivities were 2.0×102, 2.0×102 and 2.0×101 copies/μL for BPV, BCoV and BPIV, being 1000-fold greater than that in the conventional PCR. Detection of clinical samples demon- strated that triplex probe qRT-PCR had a higher sensitivity and specificity. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficient of variation were lower than 2.0%. Clinical specimens verified that the triplex qRT-PCR had a higher sensitivity and specificity than universal PCR. In conclusion, this triplex probe qRT-PCR could detect only BPV, BCoV and BPIV. Minimum detection limits were 2.0×102 copies/μL for BPV and BCoV, and 2.0×101 copies/μL for BPIV. The sensitivity of this triplex probe qRT-PCR was 1000-fold greater than that in the conventional PCR. The newly qRT-PCR could be used to monitor or differentially diagnose virus infection.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Geng
Y. Niu
L. Wei
Q. Li
Z. Gong
S. Wei
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Abstract

Canine status epilepticus (CSE) is characterized by epileptic seizures that are longer than 5 min or more than one seizure with incomplete recovery. Currently, diazepam suppositories are generally prescribed for CSE. Levetiracetam (LEV) is one of the newest antiepileptic drugs currently available. This study compared the pharmacokinetics of intragastric and intrarectal administration in oral formula of LEV in four healthy beagles as a reference data when the owner administers levetiracetam to dogs by himself at home. Blood for measuring plasma LEV concen- trations was collected 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 240, 360, and 540 min after LEV administration. The time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) was markedly shorter with intra- rectal administration (45±26 min) than with intragastric administration (270±99 min). Intrarectal administration of LEV tablets could be an effective option for treating canine seizures although it might be a limit for treating CSE because the absorption rate is not fast enough.

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Authors and Affiliations

H. Takamura
P. Chongphaibulpatana
Y. Uzuka
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Abstract

The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is an accepted method of supporting wound healing in human medicine. Yet, because of the risk of complications associated with HOBT, a safer modification of the therapy, known as L-HOBT (lower pressure and lower oxygen concen- tration), is increasingly used nowadays. Therefore, due to the lack of literature reports regarding the clinical use of L-HBOT in animals, the authors decided to present the results of L-HBOT supportive treatment of postoperative wounds after hemimastectomy compared to classic treat- ment. The study group included 12 bitches divided into two groups: group A (assisted L-HBOT) and group B (classic treatment). In addition to conventional treatment, the supportive therapy included 1.5 hours of hyperbaric chamber therapy for 5 consecutive days, starting 24 hours after surgery (1500hPa pressure and 26% oxygen concentration in the chamber). The patients were followed and evaluated throughout the course of the treatment by two independent doctors. The results of the treatment revealed no negative clinical impact of L-HOBT supportive therapy on the body of the animals. At the same time, postoperative wounds after L-HOBT healed faster and with fewer postoperative complications compared to the control group. This resulted in a shorter treatment period, terminating with an earlier skin suture removal.

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Authors and Affiliations

W. Łunkiewicz
Z. Kiełbowicz
K. Kalisiak
K. Tuliński
P. Prządka
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi roots (SB) on blood parameters and immune response during an experimental trichinellosis. A total of 60 mice infected with 200 Trichinella spiralis larvae were assigned into two groups. One of them served as a control and the second received SB extract orally from day 5 before infection to day 28 after infection (dpi). Blood was sampled at 7, 14, 21 dpi. Lymphocytes obtained from the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) at 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi were counted, CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry, and lymphocyte proliferation was estimated with colorimetric (MTT) assay. The intensity of intestinal and muscle invasion was also studied. SB caused a remarkable elevation of banded neutrophils in the blood at 7 dpi. SB increased ConA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and CD4+ and CD8+ splenocyte subsets at 14 and 21 dpi, whereas MLN lymphocyte subset stimulation involved only CD4+ at 14 dpi. After administration of SB a downward trend in the number of T. spiralis larvae in the muscle was observed. These results suggest that Scutellaria baicalensis root extract stimu- lates murine cellular immune response during intestinal phase of T. spiralis infection.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Piekarska
M. Szczypka
M. Gorczykowski
B. Króliczewska
D. Miśta
J. Oszmiański
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Abstract

The aim of this work was to evaluate the relative gene expression levels of the cytokines IL- 1B, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β in somatic milk cells of French Alpine breed, anestrous goats that were experimentally infected in the left mammary gland with Staphylococcus chromogenes during the lactation peak. Milk samples were obtained from both glands for 21 consecutive days post infection. Total RNA was extracted, and real-time PCR was conducted using primers specific to each cytokine. The relative RNA expression of the evaluated cytokines was determined by the comparative method 2-ΔΔCT, using milk from the right gland of the goats as a reference (control) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as an endogenous control. According to the Wilcoxon test results, IL-1B and IL-12 expression levels showed significant differences compared to those in the control group (p<0.05) from 24 hours post infection until the end of lactation; on day three, IL1β, IL8, IL12 and TGF-β had a statistically significant change in expression with respect to those in the control group (p<0.05); closer to the end of the lactation period, there is no overexpression of the anti-inflammatory interleukins (IL-4 and TGF-β) which may reflect the effort of the host immune system to eradicate the microorganism from the mammary gland.

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Authors and Affiliations

R.A. Ruiz-Romero
D. Martínez-Gómez
R.A. Cervantes-Olivares
E. Díaz-Aparicio
A.E. Ducoing-Watty
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Abstract

Studies in human medicine have shown that in addition to affecting the reproductive system, the hormone estrogen also has cardioprotective effects. The present study hypothesized that ovariohysterectomized (OVH) dogs would have a higher incidence of cardiac dysfunction and impairment of lipid profiles compared to intact female dogs. Thirty healthy female dogs were divided into two groups, 15 intact female dogs and 15 OVH dogs. All the dogs underwent a physical examination, including investigation of physical parameters, blood collection for lipid profile measurement, thoracic radiography, electrocardiography and echocardiography. Physical examination parameters, electrocardiographic parameters, heart size and cardiac function in OVH dogs were not different when compared to intact female dogs. However, in the OVH dogs, triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein levels were increased, while high-density lipoprotein was significantly decreased compared to the intact female dogs (P<0.05). Differences between the groups in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein did not reach statistical signi- ficance. We concluded that estrogen deprivation in dogs can induce lipid profile impairment but not cardiac performance impairment 1 year after an ovariohysterectomy.

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Authors and Affiliations

C. Boonyapakorn
V. Punyapornwithaya
G. Sawatphakdee
N. Poolsawat
W. Pongkan
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Abstract

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of infectious enteritis called paratuberculosis that has a high economic impact on the worldwide livestock production. A central important question arises: Can wildlife animals serve as a reservoir for transmission of MAP to domestic ruminants? With this in mind, we devised a study to detect MAP in various Slovakian wildlife species found in the areas where paratuberculosis had been documented in domestic ruminants. The samples of parenchymatous organs (intestines, ileocecal valve and mesenteric lymphatic nodes) from 83 wildlife animals representing 13 species, inclu- ding 7 herbivorous, 5 carnivorous and 1 omnivorous species were collected during a four-year period. The clinical and pathological examinations failed to demonstrate any manifestations of paratuberculosis in any of the wildlife samples. The detection of MAP was done by widely used tests, i.e. cultivation and the PCR analysis. The bacterial cultures revealed the growth of Mycobacterium spp. colonies in 58 (70%) of all of the wild animals, but the PCR testing demonstrated paratuberculosis only in one (7.69%) of the roe deer population.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Čurlík
P. Lazár
A. Iglódyová
E. Barbušinová
Ľ. Šmiga
J. Novotný
J. Mojžišová
A. Ondrejková
R. Hromada
D. Konjević
M.R. Bhide
M. Drážovská
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Abstract

The electromagnetic field (EMF) is an environmental factor affecting living organisms. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of an extremely low frequency electro- magnetic field (ELF-EMF) on selected chemical components of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The FTIR method provides information on the chemical structure of compounds through identification and analysis of functional groups. The honeybees were treated with EMF at a frequency of 50 Hz and magnetic induction of 1.6 mT for 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Analysis of FTIR spectra showed that EMF exposure longer than 2 hours induced changes in the structure of chemical compounds, especially in the IR region corresponding to DNA, RNA, phospholipids and protein vibrations, compared to control samples (bees not EMF treated). The results confirm the effect of EMF on bees depending on the duration of exposure.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Koziorowska
J. Depciuch
J. Białek
I. Woś
K. Kozioł
S. Sadło
B. Piechowicz
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Abstract

Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) and yeast are feed supplements that improve forage digestion in rumen, but their influences on physical reticulorumen parameters are not well studied. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the EFE:endo-β-xylanase (37x104 U/cow/day), endocellulase (45x104 U/cow/day), endo-β-glucanase (12x104U/cow/day), and active yeast – Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM-1077 (10x109CFU/cow/day) supplements on reticulorumen pH (RpH) and temperature (RT) in dairy cows. Nine Lithuanian Red cows were allocated into three groups (3 cows/group): control group (C) – farm diet without supplementa- tion, enzyme group (E) – farm diet supplemented with EFE, enzyme and active yeast group (EY) – farm diet supplemented with EFE and active yeast. The feeding trial lasted for 60 d. All cows were equipped with reticuloruminal telemetric pH and temperature sensor device. Data provided by the device were used to calculate the mean RpH (RpH/24h), the mean minimal RpH ( RpH/24h min.) and mean of the time that RpH was below the threshold value of 6.0 (RpH<6.0/24h, min.). The highest RpH/24h (6.37±0.22) was observed in group EY and it was by 1.62% (p<0.05) and 1.27% (p<0.001) higher as compared with groups E and C, respectively. Also min RpH/24h (6.24±0.24) was highest in group EY and values were by 0.63% (p<0.001) and 0.65% (p<0.001) higher as compared with groups C and E, respectively.

The shortest duration of RpH<6.0/24h, was recorded in group EY, and it was by 57.76% (p<0.05) and 47.87% shorter as compared with groups C and E, respectively. In conclusion, feed supple- mentation with EFE and Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM-1077 had beneficial effect on RpH.

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Authors and Affiliations

I. Šilinskas
I. Monkevičienė
I. Tapio
K. Musayeva
R. Japertienė
S. Kerzienė
G. Dovydaitienė
A. Sederevičius
R. Želvytė
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Abstract

An HPLC-DAD method was developed for the determination of formaldehyde in animal feed and silage. The method is based on the determination of the product of chemical reaction between formaldehyde and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. A 3 g of feed or silage were extracted with Milli-Q water with phosphoric acid and next formaldehyde was derivative with the use 2,4-dinitrophenyl- hydrazine in acetronitrile solution. The extract was purified with 0.45 µm syringe filters and separeted on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 column and detection was carried out at 360 nm. Formal- dehyde was eluted with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/water in isocratic elution. This method provided average recoveries of 90.6% to 102.2%, with CVs of 2.6% to 6.4% for feed and from 91.3% to 108.7% with CVs of 1.1% to 4.1% for silage in the ranged of 50 to 1000 mg/kg feeds and silage. The LOD and LOQ for formaldehyde in feed and silage ranged from 1.6 to 2.6 and 2.7 to 5.7 mg/kg, respectively. The methodology was applied for the analysis of feed and silage samples collected from poultry, pigs and cows farms.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Patyra
K. Kwiatek
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Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has been recognized as one of the important zoonotic pathogens. However, it was limited about the epidemiology and genetic characteristics of S. aureus isolated from pigs in Hunan province, china. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of 163 S. aureus isolated from 590 pigs in Hunan Province, China. All isolates were characterized by agr typing, detection of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes, lethal test of mice and antibiotic susceptibility tests. The results showed that 30 strains of the 163 isolates were divided into agrI (18.40%), agrII (36/163, 22.09%), agrIII (20/163, 12.27%,), agrIV (20/163,12.27%) and the remaining 57 isolates were amplified negative by agr primers. In the 163 isolates, the detection rate of the virulence genes hlb, hld, hla, icaA, seb, fnbA, eta, etb, sea, tst and pvl ranged from 2.45% to 100%. The 43 isolates that were lethal to the mice, had β-hemolytic activity, the number of virulence genes of which was 7.8% higher than that of the remaining 120 non-fatal strains. The resistance rates of the 163 isolates to the 15 antibiotics were 0% (0/163) - 100% (163/163). All isolates were susceptible to Vancomycin and only 7 isolates were methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The detection rates of the 11 resistance genes was 0% (0/163) - 100% (163/163). This study first to describes the epidemiology and characteristics of S. aureus from pigs in Hunan Province, which will help in tracking the evolution of epidemic strains and preventing pig-human transmission events.

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Authors and Affiliations

X. Zhang
G. Wang
C. Yin
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Abstract

Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound which is found in many nutrients including grapes, peanuts, raspberries, and apples. Anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and apoptotic effects of resveratrol have been shown on various cancer cells. Doxorubicin is considered as one of the most effective anticancer agents and reveals its antitumor activity by induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. Our study reports for the first time the potent ability of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin to inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxic effect of resveratrol (1.56-100 μM), doxorubicin (0.01-0.92 µM) and their combination were analyzed in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by ATP assay. In vitro angiogenesis was evaluated using tube formation assay in HUVECs. In vivo anti-angiogenic activity was assessed in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model using fertilized chicken eggs. All test groups were compared to thalidomide as a positive control, three concentrations of resveratrol (10-5-2.5 µg/pellet) and a 2 µg/pellet concentration of doxorubicin was examined. All data were evaluated statistically. Resveratrol and doxorubicin alone displayed inhibitory effects on angiogenesis and cell viability at higher doses. However, the combination of resveratrol and doxorubicin exhibited a significant dose-dependent inhibition of CAM angiogenesis in vivo as well as proliferation and tube formation in HUVECs compared to the positive control (±)-thalidomide. Our results suggest that resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin is a novel strategy in the prevention and treatment of angiogenesis.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Uvez
S. Aydinlik
O.B.B. Esener
M. Erkisa
D. Karakus
E.I. Armutak
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Abstract

Endoscopy represents a commonly employed technique for canine enteropathies. Different trials in human intestinal endoscopy have suggested that the introduction of water for luminal distension, in place of air, improves the visualization of the mucosal texture and decreases pain.

The aim of the study was to compare water immersion (WI) vs. air insufflation (AI) during duodenoscopy in anesthetized dogs in terms of mucosal visualization and nociception.

Twenty-five dogs undergoing duodenoscopy were included. The same image of the descen- ding duodenum was recorded applying WI and AI. Each pair of images was analyzed using mor- phological skeletonization, an image entropy evaluation, and a subjective blind evaluation by three experienced endoscopists. To evaluate differences in nociception related to the procedure applied, heart rate and arterial blood pressure were measured before, during and after WI/AI. To compare the two methods, a t-test for paired data was applied for the image analysis, Fleiss’ Kappa evaluation for the subjective evaluation and a Friedman test for anesthetic parameters.

No differences were found between WI and AI using morphological skeletonization and entropy. The subjective evaluation identified the WI images as qualitatively better than the AI images, indicating substantial agreement between the operators. No differences in nociception were found.

The results of the study pointed out the absence of changes in pain response between WI and AI, likely due to the sufficient control of nociception by the anesthesia. Based on subjective evaluation, but not confirmed by the image analysis, WI provided better image quality than AI.

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Galiazzo
F. Costantino
A. Foglia
G. Bitelli
N. Romagnoli
C. Lambertini
C. Francolini
A. Gaspardo
R. Chiocchetti
M. Pietra
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of tramadol (TM) (2 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly (IM) followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) of TM (2 mg/kg/h) in pigs. Sixteen pigs undergoing experimental surgery were premedicated IM with a combination of alfaxalone (5 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg). Anaesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg/kg) intravenously (IV) and maintained with isoflurane. Pigs were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: Group 1 (n=8): received a loading dose of TM (2 mg/kg) followed by a CRI of TM (2 mg/kg/h); Group 2 (n=8): a loading dose of TM (2 mg/kg) followed by a CRI of lactated Ringer’s solution (2 ml/kg/h). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2), end-tidal concentration of isoflurane (FEISO), end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (FECO2), pH, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) and bicarbonate concentration (HCO3-) were recorded immediately after loss of righting reflex (T=0 min) and at 15-min intervals over a period of 60 min. Continuous data were analysed using a repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. HR, RR and FEISO were significantly lower (p<0.05) in Group 1 at T30 and T45, which corresponded to the time of the most intense surgical stimulation. The results suggest that the TM infusion minimizes the HR and RR response, slightly reducing isoflurane requirements and determining a superior perioperative analgesia.

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Catone
M. Meligrana
G. Marino
C. Vullo
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Abstract

The study was performed on 45 bitches in different cycle phases that were divided into the following groups: anoestrus (I, n=15), heat (pro-oestrus (n=7) or estrous (n=8) (II, n=15) and metestrus (III, n=15). Moreover, all experimental dogs were grouped according to their age: younger than 5 years (Y, n=35) and older than 5 years (O, n=10). The endometrial status was evaluated using cytological, bacteriological and biopsy samples obtained after ovariohyster- ectomy.

The main uterine pathology diagnosed by biopsy was endometritis, since 40%–66% of bitches, independent of the experimental group, developed this condition. No significant differences were found among the cycle phase groups (p>0.05). By contrast, significant differences were found in the age groups; the prevalence of this pathology was higher in older bitches (p=0.0019). The general prevalence of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and a normal endometrium (NE) was lower (6.7–26.7% vs 26.7–53.3%) in all groups, and no statistically significant differences were found between certain groups (p>0.05). The percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) in endometrial cytology was generally low (< 2%) and did not differ signifi- cantly among the experimental groups (p=0.142). In general, a low degree of correlation was found between the diagnostic results by endometrial cytology and biopsy (Kappa Coeffi- cient=0.046). Positive bacteriological findings were found in approximately 50% of the bitches, independent of the cycle phase and health status of the endometrium. No correlation was found between the bacteriological and histopathological findings (p=0.883).

In conclusion, uterine cytology is not a reliable diagnostic method to detect the subclinical inflammatory and degenerative uterine pathologies in cyclic bitches.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Bukowska
A. Jurczak
D. Tobolski
T. Janowski
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Abstract

The pathogenesis of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia is poorly understood. In the present study, a mouse model of intranasal infection by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) was used to examine lung inflammation. The pathogical results of lung tissues showed that App-infected mice showed dyspnea and anorexia, with severe damage by acute hemorrhage, and infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes, as well as increased expression of caspase-1 p20, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Caspase-1 inhibitors reduced both lung tissue damage and the expression of caspase-1 p20, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IL-18 in infected mice. These findings suggest that the caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis involved in the pathogenesis of the mouse pleuropneumonia caused by App and the inhibition of caspase-1 reduced the lung injury of this pleuropneumonia

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Authors and Affiliations

Y. Zhang
T. Yang
F. Huang
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Abstract

The aim of the experiment was to examine the effect of a diet enriched with Lactobacillus plantarum and/or β-glucan on the immune parameters in the juvenile tench (Tinca tinca). Fish were fed for 14 days different diets (phase 1 of the experiment), a dry commercial starter feed in the control group or the same feed supplemented with: 1% β-1,3/1,6-glucan in group G, 108 cfu L. plantarum g-1 in group L, 1% β-1,3/1,6-glucan + 108 cfu L. plantarum g-1 in group G+L. During consecutive 14 days all fish were fed the commercial feed alone (phase 2). The stimulating effects of the tested preparations was evaluated twice, at the end of each experimental phase. Dietary supplementation of β-1,3/1,6-glucan considerably improved the humoral innate immune response (activity of lysozyme and total Ig) and the pinocytotic activity of phagocytes. Supplement of L. plantarum improved the ability of the head kidney phagocytes (RBA) to carry out oxygen burst in L and G+L groups. A similar effect was observed for the killing activity of phagocytes (PKA) from the head kidney after the stimulation of A. hydrophila, and the effect persisted for two weeks after the commercial feed regime was resumed. A significant increase in the pro- liferative activity of B lymphocytes originating from the head kidney was observed in groups L and G+L. The study has revealed that the addition of the tested G+L synbiotic to dry diet stimulates the innate immune response mechanisms in the juvenile tench.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Kazuń
J. Małaczewska
K. Kazuń
R. Kamiński
J. Żylińska-Urban
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine how puerperal metritis influences the resumption of estrous cycle in dairy cows. The ovaries of 72 multiparous Holstein cows (38 healthy and 34 metritic – after treatment) were ultrasonographically scanned until the first ovulation post- partum and 7 days after to confirm the ovulation. All 72 cows were divided in to 4 groups: HSO (healthy with single ovulation) (n=29), MSO (metritic with single ovulation) (n=21), HDO (healthy with double ovulation) (n=9), and MDO (metritic with double ovulation) (n=13). The proportion of cows that had DO in the first ovulation postpartum was similar between M and H groups, 38.2% and 23.6%, respectively (p>0.05). There was a difference between HDO and MDO groups comparing the first dominant follicle ovulation postpartum (11.4±2.7 and 20±1 days, respectively p<0.05) and the diameter of the ovulatory follicles (15.3±1.9 mm and 17.3±1.7 mm, respectively p<0.05). The percentage of cows that had double follicle domi- nance in the first follicular wave after first ovulation was higher in the M groups (33.3% (MSO) vs. 6.9% (HSO) (p<0.05) and (69.2% (MDO) vs. 22.2% (HDO) (p<0.05)). The MSO group dominant follicle diameter was bigger for cows which had one dominant follicle (p<0.05). It might be concluded that dairy cows after puerperal metritis need more time until the first ovu- lation. Also, metritic cows have a higher risk for double dominance in the first follicular wave, after the first ovulation.

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Authors and Affiliations

V. Juodžentis
J. Šiugždaitė
G. Palubinskas
D. Juodžentė
A. Rekešiūtė
H. Žilinskas
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Abstract

The third eyelid rotation associated with the nictitans gland prolapse and third eyelid cartilage eversion is a rarely encountered ocular disorder. The present retrospective study includes the distribution of the relevant deformations in the cartilage and nictitans gland accompanying the third eyelid rotation in the cat according to breed, age, and gender-based differences, as well as the clinical manifestations, surgical therapeutic approach (partial resection of the scrolled car- tilage portion combined with the Morgan pocket technique), and the outcome of the procedure, concurrently monitoring whether or not the functions of the nictitating membrane were preserved after the procedure, the likelihood of relapse and the potential complications. A total of sixteen eyes surgically treated with the above-mentioned surgical method that belonged to thirteen cats diagnosed with the nictitans gland prolapse and cartilage eversion accompanying the third eyelid rotation were included in the study. The most common breeds were Persian (38.4%) and British shorthair (38.4%), with five cases from each. Three cats (20%) were bilaterally affected, while there was a unilateral involvement in ten of the cases (80%). Out of the ten cases with a unilateral lesion, the right eye was affected in 6 (60%) individuals, while the left eye was involved in four (40%). Nine cats were male, and four were female. The study was conducted in an attempt to surgically correct the third eyelid cartilage eversion and prolapsed nictitans gland responsible for the nictitating membrane rotation in cats by the partial removal of the everted cartilage com- bined with the Morgan pocket technique. Follow-ups were performed twice every other week in the postoperative period, followed by a one-time clinical inspection at the end of the first, third, and sixth months.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Demir
Y. Altundağ
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Abstract

Selenium deficiency is a common nutritional disorder in dairy cattle globally. However, sele- nium supplementation can lead to selenium toxicity. This study evaluated a novel, low-toxicity selenium supplement, selenitetriglycerides, to determine its efficacy and safety in dairy cows. The study was conducted on 12 Holstein Friesian cows divided in two equal groups (control group without supplementation of selenium and experimental group with supplementation of selenitetriglycerides). Experimental cows (n=6) were orally administered 300 mg/cow/day of selenitetriglycerides for 14 days (days 1-14) and then monitored for a further 14 days (days 15-28). Blood from both groups of cows was sampled for determination of selenium concentra- tions, activity of aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, total protein, urea, creatinine and hematological parameters. Serum selenium concentra- tions in the experimental group increased significantly on day 2 (from 64.92±6.89 μg/L to 127.95±13.75 μg/L), peaked on day 7 (266.22±14.21 μg/L) and remained significantly above the initial baseline values (day 1) for 28 days. Serum selenium concentrations in the control group did not change significantly during the 28 day period (65.22 μg/L on 1st day and 64,35 μg/L on 28th day) and were significantly lower than those in the experimental group from day 2 to day 28. The results of clinical examinations, analyses of hematological parameters, and liver and kidney function tests showed that selenitetriglycerides had no adverse effect on the health or on the metabolic or haematological statuses of the cows. These findings indicate that sele- nitetriglycerides are safe and effective selenium supplements for cattle.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Żarczyńska
P. Sobiech
J. Mee
J. Illek
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Abstract

Coronaviruses present a considerable concern for humans and animals. The current world- wide pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus showed many gaps in understanding of coronaviruses spread and transmission. Because of lack of effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 the only preventive measures are represented by wearing protective masks and gloves thus limiting potential risk of contact with the airborne virus. Inversely, the limited time of protective function of the masks presents another drawback of their use. Therefore, the application of disinfection agent dispersed on the surface of protective masks may enhance their effectivity and safety of their application. The aim of the study was to examine the virucidal efficacy of low-concentra- ted sodium hypochlorite dispersed using ultrasonic humidifier on the surface of surgery masks. The study was conducted using SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus, namely porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) representing a model with similar biophysical properties and genomic structure to human coronaviruses. Five different concentrations of the disinfectant with different content of sodium hypochlorite were selected for the study. A final concentration of 0.228 g/L sodium hypochlorite effectively inactivated the PED virus and may support the biosafety of masks usage.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Antas
A. Szczotka-Bochniarz
G. Woźniakowski
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Abstract

Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an important disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence / prevalence of CCHFV in tick and milk and blood samples of domestic ruminant (cattle, sheep and goat) in Resadiye town of Tokat province, where the disease is endemic. Although no virus RNA was found from whole blood and milk samples, it was detected in 10 of 78 (12.8%) tick pools. Viral loads ranged from 4.8x104 copies/ml to 2.66x109 copies/ml. Out of 171 serum samples examined, 113 (66.1%) were found to be positive for CCHFV. In conclusion, it was revealed that the prevalence of CCHFV was more common in small ruminants than in cattle. It is an important result in terms of public health that virus cannot be detected. The detection of virus RNA in tick samples shows that CCHFV is still endemic in domestic animals.

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Özüpak
H. Albayrak

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief:
Lakomy Miroslaw, University of Warmia and Mazury, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Anatomy, Olsztyn, Poland


Deputy/ Managing Editors:
Kaleczyc Jerzy, University of Warmia and Mazury, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Anatomy, Olsztyn, Poland
Krzysztof Wasowicz, University of Warmia and Mazury, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Anatomy, Olsztyn, Poland

 

Contact

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
University of Warmia and Mazury
Department of Functional Morphology Division of Animal Anatomy
ul. Oczapowskiego 13 (Bldg. 105J)
10-957 Olsztyn-Kortowo II Poland
Phone: +48-89-5233733
Fax: +48-89-5234986
e-mail: pjovs@moskit.uwm.edu.pl

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